Postfix Stress-Dependent Configuration


This document describes the symptoms of Postfix SMTP server overload, and how to avoid the condition under normal conditions. When the condition is caused by botnets or other malware, the document suggests configuration settings that help to minimize the impact on legitimate mail. Finally, the document introduces stress-adaptive behavior, introduced with Postfix 2.5, and how it can be used to automatically switch configuration settings under overload.

Topics covered in this document:

Symptoms of Postfix SMTP server overload

Under normal conditions, Postfix responds immediately when a remote SMTP client connects. The time needed to deliver mail should be noticeable only with very large messages. Performance degrades more dramatically when the number of remote SMTP clients exceeds the number of Postfix SMTP server processes. When a client connects while all server processes are busy, the client must wait until a server process becomes available.

Overload may be caused by a legitimate mail (example: a DNS registrar opens a new zone for registrations), by mistake (mail explosion caused by a forwarding loop) or by illegitimate mail (worm outbreak, botnet, or other malware activity). Symptoms of Postfix SMTP mail server overload are:

Legitimate mail that doesn't get through during an episode of overload is not necessarily lost. It should still arrive once the situation returns to normal, as long as the overload condition is temporary.

Service more SMTP clients at the same time

To service more SMTP clients simultaneously, you need to increase the number of SMTP server processes. This will improve the responsiveness for remote SMTP clients, as long as the server machine has enough hardware and software resources to run the additional processes, and as long as the file system can keep up with the additional load.

Spend less time per SMTP client

When increasing the number of SMTP server processes is not practical, you can improve Postfix server responsiveness by eliminating unnecessary work. When Postfix spends less time per SMTP session, the same number of SMTP server processes can service more clients in the same amount of time.

Disconnect suspicious SMTP clients

Under conditions of overload you can improve Postfix SMTP server responsiveness by hanging up on suspicious clients, so that other clients get a chance to talk to Postfix.

Take desperate measures

The following measures will still allow most legitimate clients to connect and send mail, but may affect some legitimate clients.

1  /etc/postfix/
2      smtpd_timeout = 10
3      smtpd_hard_error_limit = 1
4      # Caution: line 5 may trigger REJECTs by hostname-based access rules 
5      smtpd_peername_lookup = no

Except with the last measure, no mail should be lost, as long as these measures are used only temporarily. The next section of this document introduces a way to automate this process.

Make Postfix behavior stress-adaptive

Postfix version 2.5 introduces automatic stress-adaptive behavior. This is also available as an add-on patch for Postfix versions 2.4 and 2.3 from the mirrors listed at

It works as follows. When a "public" network service runs into an "all server ports are busy" condition, the master(8) daemon logs a warning, restarts the service (without interrupting existing network sessions), and runs the service with "-o stress=yes" on the command line. Normally, it runs a stress-adaptive service with "-o stress=" on the command line (i.e. with an empty parameter value). Other services never have "-o stress" parameters on the command line, including services that listen on a loopback interface only.

The stress pseudo-parameter value is the key to making parameter settings stress adaptive:

1  /etc/postfix/
2      smtpd_timeout = ${stress?10}${stress:300}
3      smtpd_hard_error_limit = ${stress?1}${stress:20}


The syntax of ${name?value} and ${name:value} is explained at the beginning of the postconf(5) manual page.

NOTE: Please keep in mind that the stress-adaptive feature is a fairly desperate measure to keep some legitimate mail flowing under overload conditions. If a site is reaching the SMTP server process limit when there isn't an attack or bot flood occurring, then either the process limit needs to be raised or more hardware needs to be added.

Detecting support for stress-adaptive behavior

To find out if your Postfix installation supports stress-adaptive behavior, use the "ps" command, and look for the smtpd processes. Postfix has stress-adaptive support when you see "-o stress=" or "-o stress=yes" command-line options. Remember that Postfix never enables stress-adaptive behavior on servers that listen on local addresses only.

The following example is for FreeBSD or Linux. On Solaris, HP-UX and other System-V flavors, use "ps -ef" instead of "ps ax".

$ ps ax|grep smtpd
83326  ??  S      0:00.28 smtpd -n smtp -t inet -u -c -o stress=
84345  ??  Ss     0:00.11 /usr/bin/perl /usr/libexec/postfix/

You can't use postconf(1) to detect stress-adaptive support. The postconf(1) command ignores the existence of the stress parameter in, because the parameter has no effect there. Command-line "-o parameter" settings always take precedence over parameter settings.

If you configure stress-adaptive behavior in when it isn't supported, nothing bad will happen. The processes will run as if the stress parameter always has an empty value.

Forcing stress-adaptive behavior on or off

You can manually force stress-adaptive behavior on, by adding a "-o stress=yes" command-line option in This can be useful for testing overrides on the SMTP service. Issue "postfix reload" to make the change effective.

Note: setting the stress parameter in has no effect for services that accept remote connections.

1 /etc/postfix/
2     # =============================================================
3     # service type  private unpriv  chroot  wakeup  maxproc command
4     # =============================================================
5     # 
6     smtp      inet  n       -       n       -       -       smtpd
7         -o stress=yes
8         -o . . .

To permanently force stress-adaptive behavior off with a specific service, specify "-o stress=" on its command line. This may be desirable for the "submission" service. Issue "postfix reload" to make the change effective.

Note: setting the stress parameter in has no effect for services that accept remote connections.

1 /etc/postfix/
2     # =============================================================
3     # service type  private unpriv  chroot  wakeup  maxproc command
4     # =============================================================
5     # 
6     submission inet n       -       n       -       -       smtpd
7         -o stress=
8         -o . . .